A few tips for essay writing

An essay is created first in the mind, and only when you have it ready mentally, you start to write. Here are a few tips for essay writing. Who wants to sort and organize ideas must be able to do undisturbed. He must above all have leisure and rest. For this you can use the below mentioned techniques.

images Melodic music

When brainstorming, whether tangible or experience essays, helps right music that liberates the imagination. The music should have a clear rhythm and to a dominant melody. They should be played with a normal voice. You should then take yourself to your favourite place (in bed, on the bed, on the carpet …) space.

Relaxed situations

imagesStreams of thought are also released by relaxing situations that ostensibly benefit the body (for example, in the shower, on the toilet, in the bath, on the couch, when jogging). It is because these activities are based on the body, relaxes the mind, and you can let your mind wander about.

Flowing equilibrium

Equally helpful viewing or listening so-called “fluid balance” is the view of a burning candle, the steady murmur of falling water (waterfall, a dam), a chuckling stream, viewing of migrating clouds, looking at a pendulum.

Brilliant idea to write down immediately

Thinking about the structure of an essay and the choice of content, which occur in it need not take place entirely on the desk. However, you should always be something to write (or a voice recorder) have with you so that you can immediately capture brilliant ideas. Because sometimes-flash ideas to be very brief, and you have to write down quickly before they disappear after about 20 seconds back in the depths of your brain.

Text Editing

Teachers often give you something to read, but you should specifically answer questions about the text. It may indeed happen that a subject you are particularly interested, and you want to read an extra something. The mere reading is not enough. Because if you just sit down and read it, you forget that same day, about 90% of what is read. Also for the reading of a text, there are of course tricks that you provide are crucial for learning and time advantages.

The steps in the text editing

• Overview gain: What is the text?
• Reading sections divided
• Look up unfamiliar words
• Underline important passages out write
• Repeat in your own words
• The text outline

Dissertation Writing: Citations and Referencing

What scientists will work, not only by themselves, but also by the process knowledge from previous generations? This often is the metaphor used by the dwarves sitting on the shoulders of giants. It must be placed on the preliminary work done with respect and tribute references.

imagesWhat is done by others, whether it be chosen, as a direct quote or content and thought, must. Citations and references are therefore a relief to your own work, because you can rely on what others have done. If you do not provide these credentials, you are guilty of plagiarism. Because of this scientific fraud has increased in recent times, the thesis is a written declaration showing that the submitted work all sources are given.

In linguistics, it is customary to show a quote directly in the text. It is listed in parentheses directly the source, with the name of the first two authors, year and page number. For more than two authors is usually given only the first, the others will. “Et al” with “others” or specified. Small letters (Müller 2004a, 2004b) distinguish several publications by the same author in the same year. The look in the bibliography are in all cases the complete notice.

It is therefore not necessary for the complete information in the scrolling text to provide – not even in the first citation. Is common in the literature evidence of citations in footnotes is deprecated in linguistics. Citations follow the template exactly in wording and spelling.

Shorter quotations are enclosed in double quotes. Quotations that are longer than three lines are indented, with closer spacing, and without quotation marks. The original error or unexpected forms are accepted and with [sic] marked.images Changes in the citations are noted in brackets, it is case replaced and the new form set in the brackets [A], omissions are with [...] in substantive additions, which quote from the wider context of the result will also be set in [xxxxx BS] and marked with the initials of the author.

The reference immediately following the quote or can be incorporated into the text, as shown below. Non-verbatim quotes, analogous reproductions and references to total texts must also be proven. Of course, missing the quote quotes. Directly with the author’s name (date and page number in parenthesis) incorporate even these references into the text, which is often the more elegant version, or then “see” given total in parenthesis.

Dissertation Proposal: The three phases of the dissertation process

It is the major objective of the Ph.D. program is the successful completion of the dissertation. Then each student working toward the beginning. The procedure can be roughly divided in my experience. In preparing the dissertation, you pass three main phases. The orientation, the preliminary and the final dissertation phase. In the following, I briefly describe the three phases, which can be characterized.

imagesThe First Phase it is orientation

In the orientation phase, the newly crowned graduate student the opportunity to familiarize themselves with the topics of the institute. As described in the previous parts, in particular serve conversations with colleagues a better orientation, which are also helpful for your own future thematic positioning. At the end of the orientation phase, the candidate should have an estimate of a potential thesis topic. This phase is in my experience, between 12-18 months.
The Second Phase it is preliminary study

imagesThe preliminary study is used to the idea of the dissertation project to clarify. In this case, both the practical and scientific relevance are presented. It must also be the question to be answered, as you want access to research results. The research methodology plays an important role. If the professor accepts the proposal, it will go to the further processing in the form of the final dissertation. The preliminary study must be submitted after about 18-24 months.

The Final Phase it is the doctoral thesis

The thesis represents the completion of doctoral studies represents. It must summarize the student’s most important research results in recent years. This time is often referred to as “hot phase”. The last 6 months are then spent exclusively with writing. After submission of the dissertation, the dissertation must still be defended in an oral defence. If the final exam is passed, only missing administrative details. After passing through the official bodies, the doctorate will be awarded at a ceremony along with other students.


Conclusion: If you are in the preliminary study already gives great effort to clarify his subject, who later in the final dissertation less work.